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February 10, 2020

ClearCalcs Design the wall and base reinforcement assuming fcu 35 kNm 2, f y 500 kNm 2 and the cover to reinforcement in the wall and base are, … However, we can already see a storm on the horizon! We need to estimate the required thickness of the footing, since the self-weight of the footing is usually quite significant. > 0.4%. The fluid level inside Footings almost never have shear reinforcement - it is usually preferable to increase the footing thickness. This is a coupled wall … Powered by Help Scout. The ACI-318-14 code (*Cl 7.4.3.2*) specifies that the critical shear section should be taken at a distance $d$ from the face of the wall. o.c. Contact Us We thus need to factor the loads. Finding the actual moment resistance now: \begin{aligned} a &= \frac{A_sf_y}{0.85 f'_c b} \\ &= \frac{0.34\text{ in}^2\text{/ft} \times 60000 \text{ psi}}{0.85 \times 3000\text{psi} \times12 \text{ in/ft}}\\ &=0.667 \text{ in} \end{aligned} With such a small value of $a$, it's clear that our footing will be tension controlled and thus $\phi = 0.90$. o.c. We will design our footing to resist its load and check it for: We enter the given information directly into ClearCalcs. Resistance to axial compression 3. With our 12-inch thick footing, we need a minimum of 3 inches cover (*ACI 318-14, Table 20.6.1.3.1*). At the base of footing the allowable soil pressure is 5000psf and base of footing is 5’ below the existing ground surface. Two … Assuming #8 size reinforcement (1" diameter), we can find d: $$d = 12\text{ in} - 3\text{ in} - \frac{1}{2}\times1\text{ in} = 8.5\text{ in}$$ We can now calculate the shear at the critical section: \begin{aligned} V_u &= q_u \left(\frac{B}{2} -\frac{b}{2} -d \right) \\ &= 6190 \text{ psf} \left( \frac{62\text{ in}}{2} -\frac{12\text{ in}}{2} - 8.5\text{ in}\right) \\ &= 8.51 \text{ kip/ft} \end{aligned} We must now find the shear resistance. The last check we perform is on the development length, to ensure we have proper bonding of our reinforcement at the critical section. The bottom of the footing should be at 5 ft below ground level. 3. In this case since we only have dead and live loads, it is clear that the governing load combination will be 1.2D + 1.6L. It also reduces the applied shear load since we are taking our critical section further away from the wall face. All that's left here is to find the size and spacing required. The following design … The highest groundwater table is expected to be 4′ below grade. software such as Mathcad or Excel will be useful for design iterations. o Reinforced concrete wall, when rein. US Concrete Wall Footing - Design Example Problem Statement. 2020. The design of retaining wall almost always involves decision making with a choice or set of choices along with their associated uncertainties and outcomes. We must also verify that we are meeting minimum steel area requirements are met: $$A_s = 0.0018h= 0.0018 \times 13 \text{ in} \times 12 \text{ in/ft} \\ = 0.281 \text{ in}^2\text{/ft}$$ And the maximum spacing is the minimum of $3H$ and 18 inches - the latter usually governs for footings. Note that we automatically calculate the depth to reinforcement - thus the increase in $d$ from using a smaller bar is automatically calculated which provides us with slightly more capacity! EXAMPLE 11 - CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE CANTILEVER RETAINING WALL 2 2020 RESISTANCE FACTORS When not provided in the project-specific geotechnical report, refer to the indicated AASHTO sections. This is because these weights are cancelled out by their corresponding upwards soil reaction when considering the footing as a free-body. It includes: n A description of the principal features of the Australian Standard n A description of the analysis method n Design tables for a limited range of soil conditions and wall geometry n A design example which … Opening our size selector (the filter button circled in dark blue), we see that at this spacing, #4 bars are the most optimal. The need for both limit states design methods and working stress design methods in reinforced concrete is perhaps most evident if we look at slender walls as addressed by the American Concrete Institute’s ACI 318-11, section 14.8. A 10” thick wall carries a service dead load of 8k/ft and service live load of 9k/ft. Checking in ClearCalcs, we can see that a 5.17 ft wide x 1 ft thick footing efficiently makes full use of the bearing capacity. Reinforced Cement Concrete Retaining Wall (Cantilever Type) Information Reinforced Cement Concrete Retaining Wall (Cantilever Type) Maximum 6.0 meter Height including Column Load in Line. Boundary wall design with spreadsheet file. Wall Footing Design Example Statement. 2. Bearing ɸ b= AASHTO T.11.5.7-1 Sliding (concrete on soil) ɸ T= AASHTO T.11.5.7-1 Sliding (soil on soil) ɸ T s-s= … The The Seismic Design Category is Category D. Reinforced masonry design requires that a grout/reinforcement spacing be assumed. Verifying with ClearCalcs, we can now look at the results again with a 13-inch thick footing: We see that we went down from 102% to 85% utilization in shear, and the increase in bearing stress was negligible. Md may also be taken In the example, they first try with a 12 inch thick footing. Looking at the reinforcement section, the concrete cover is already set to 3 inches (the minimum for footings) and the steel strength is already 60 ksi. Soil: equivalent fluid pressure is 45 psf/ft (7.0 kN/m²/m) (excluding soil load factors), 10 ft (3.05 m) backfill height. Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall Analysis and Design A structural reinforced concrete shear wall in a 5-story building provides lateral and gravity load resistance for the applied load as shown in the figure below. Determine the factors of safety against sliding and overturning. soldier pile walls berliner wall deep excavation. Still need help? The example focuses on the design and detailing of one of the reinforced concrete walls. For simplicity, we use Table 25.4.2.2, which gives a simple equation to calculate the development length. Check Load Combination G (0.6D + 0.7E). We pick a 13-inch thick footing and repeat the previous steps: \begin{aligned} d &= 9.5 \text{ in} \\ V_u &= 8.01 \text{ kip/ft} \\ \phi V_c &= 9.37\text{ kip/ft} \end{aligned} We see that the 1-inch increase both decreased $V_u$ and increase $\phi V_c$ as we liked. cmaa australia. Concrete strength is 3,000 psi and reinforcement strength is 60,000 psi. Reinforced Concrete Design Examples Example 3: Design of a raft of high rise building for different soil models and codes ... As a design example for circular rafts, consider the cylindrical core wall shown in Figure (35) as a part of five storeys-office building. Resistance to eccentric compression 4. In that case, steel bars are added to the beam’s compression … We go to ACI 314-18's chapter 25 to calculate the bonding length. The first thing to do is to determine the width of our footing, which is determined by the allowable soil bearing capacity. The example calculations are made here using Mathcad. Foreword The introduction of European standards to UK construction is a signiﬁ cant event. bid = M + N @ - for N O.lfcubd For design as wall (see Chapter 8). Design of Boundary wall spreadsheet. Rectangular Concrete Tank Design Example An open top concrete tank is to have three chambers, each measuring 20′×60′ as shown. 2.5” clear to strength steel #5@12” rather than the designed #5@10” BENDING STRENGTH OF THE SECTION HAS BEEN REDUCED BY ABOUT 16%. See ASCE 7-16, Cl 2.3.1 for more information. With ClearCalcs, it is just as easy to perform the more detailed calculations of development length, so this is what to do to provide safe and economical designs. f'c = 3000 psi fy = 60 ksi o Development of Structural Design Equations. The development length is reduced by a huge margin when using the detailed equation! It presents the principles of the design of concrete ele-ments and of complete structures, with practical illustrations of the theory. The stem may have constant thickness along the length or may be tapered based on economic and construction criteria. DESIGN EXAMPLE. The fourth edition of Reinforced Concrete Design to Eurocodes: Design Theory and Examples has been extensively rewritten and expanded in line with the current Eurocodes. Two equations are … First, it increases the capacity by providing a greater value of $d$. Design of the wall reinforcement for shear 5. Sketches of the retaining wall forces should be considered to properly distinguish the different forces acting on our retaining wall as tackled in the previous article, Retaining Wall: A Design Approach. We are using a No.4 bar with large spacing, so we can use the least conservative formula as per the table. In this example, the structural design of the three retaining wall components is performed by hand. The CivilWeb Concrete Shear Wall Design Spreadsheet is a powerful spreadsheet for the design of shear walls in … The wall is... Design Criteria. With these criteria in mind, we can select our reinforcement - using the textbook's approximation for required steel area, we find we can use either #5 bars at 11 inches O.C. The ten design standards, known as the Eurocodes, will affect all design and construction activities as current British Standards for design … We compare this to the distance to the critical section: $$\frac{B}{2}-\frac{b}{2} = \frac{5.17 \text{ ft}}{2}-\frac{1 \text{ ft}}{2} =2.09 \text{ ft} = 25 \text{ in}$$ Since 25 inches is larger than 21.9 inches, we know our bars are developed as required. As a result, the concrete cannot develop the compression force required to resist the given bending moment. Based on our example in Figure A.1, we have the forces due to soil pressure, due to water and surcharge load to consider. The base is divided into two parts, … Design of Slab (Examples and Tutorials) by Sharifah Maszura Syed Mohsin Example 1: Simply supported One way slab A rectangular reinforced concrete slab is simply-supported on two masonry walls 250 mm thick and 3.75 m apart. (203-mm) thick, 20 ft (6.10 m) high reinforced simply supported concrete masonry wall (115 pcf (1,842 kg/m³)) is to be designed to resist wind load as well as eccentrically applied axial live … Find the following parameters for design moments in Step 2 per unit width Step 4 Note: Note: Design of slab for flexure 067 m UNIT WIDTH of slab. Increasing the thickness benefits shear resistance in two ways. At this point, we could either increase the concrete strength, increase the footing thickness or decide to add shear reinforcement. Now your task is to design the wall footing for; Concrete compressive … This is conservative and simplifies calculations somewhat. There are 6 columns between it and the next shear wall. Slender wall is a wall other than a stocky wall. Load from slab is transferred as axial load to wall. A 20m high, 3.5m long shear wall is acting as both a lateral and vertical support to a 4-storey building. We essentially have a cantilevered out concrete slab, with a uniformly distributed load from the soil's upward pressure. … CE 537, Spring 2011 Retaining Wall Design Example 1 / 8 Design a reinforced concrete retaining wall for the following conditions. Shear connection between columns and walls and between walls concreted in two different … We thus only need to calculate the factored concrete shear strength $\phi V_c$, which is given by ACI 318-14 Cl 22.5.5.1: $$\phi V_c = \phi 2\lambda \sqrt{f'_c}d$$ For shear, ACI 318-14 Table 21.2.1 specifies $\phi = 0.75$ and we're using normal-weight concrete so $\lambda = 1.0$. (M# 29 at 1,829 mm). Our shear capacity may not be quite enough with only 12" of thickness, and our reinforcement can't fully develop - we'll have to do something about that... After the little sneak peek we saw when checking soil bearing, we definitely want to take a look at shear. DESIGN EXAMPLE. The wall is assumed to be located in the Christchurch Port Hills. Design Example 2 Reinforced Concrete Wall with Coupling Beams OVERVIEW The structure in this design example is a six-story office building with reinforced concrete walls as its seismic-force-resisting system. 9 bars at 72 in. Design the reinforcement in the wall at its base and mid-height. CE 437/537, Spring 2011 Retaining Wall Design Example 1 / 8 Design a reinforced concrete retaining wall for the following conditions. Calculate ground bearing pressures. Using Table 4, the wall can be adequately reinforced using No. While ... for example, moderate or high seismic zone. We enter the given information directly into ClearCalcs. 1.2 Example Wall . We can find the moment capacity. \begin{aligned} \phi M_n &= \phi A_s f_y\left(d - a/2 \right) \\ &= 0.90 \times 0.34\text{ in}^2\text{/ft} \times 60000 \text{ psi} \left(9.5\text{ in} - \frac{0.667\text{ in}}{2} \right) \\ &= 14.0 \text{ kip-ft/ft} \end{aligned} Note that in this example, $d$ was kept at 9.5 inches even though it would be slightly larger, since we are using #4 bars with half the diameter $d_b$. The textbook recommends using a value of 1-1.5 times the wall thickness for the footing thickness. $$A_{req'd}= \frac{10\text{ kip/ft} + 12.5 \text{ kip/ft}}{5000\text{ psf} -150\text{ psf} - 4 \text{ ft}\times 120 \text{ pcf}} = 5.15 \frac{\text{ft}^2}{\text{ft}}$$ We thus select a footing width of 62 inches or 5.17 ft. Reinforced Concrete SK 3/3 Section through slab showing stress due to moment. Manual for Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete to the September 2013 Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete 2013 2.0 Some Highlighted Aspects in Basis of Design 2.1 Ultimate and Serviceability Limit states The ultimate and serviceability limit states used in the Code carry the normal meaning as in other … The design and detailing requirements for special reinforced concrete shear walls have undergone significant changes from ACI 318-11 to ACI 318-14. coefÞcient of friction is 0.4 and the unit weight of reinforced concrete is 24 kNm 3 1. f'c = 3000 psi fy = 60 ksi Natural Soil Development of Structural Design Equations. Chapters 1 through 6 were developed by individual authors, as indicated on the first page of those chapters, and updated to the … ... Design of reinforced concrete elements with excel notes Download . Reinforced Concrete Cantilever Retaining Wall Design Example is 456 2000 indian standard code book for rcc design. Soil Bearing. CivilWeb Concrete Shear Wall Design Spreadsheet. Floor slabs frame into it at 3.2m centres and are 200mm thick. We can thus easily calculate the bending moment, using the typical equation for a cantilever beam: \begin{aligned} M_u &= \frac{q_u}{2} \left(\frac{B}{2} - \frac{b}{2} \right)^2 \\ &= \frac{6190 \text{ psf}}{2} \left( \frac{62\text{ in}}{2} -\frac{12\text{ in}}{2}\right)^2 \\ &= 13.5 \text{ kip-ft/ft} \end{aligned} Using the familiar approximation to find the required area of steel (with $M_u$ in $\text{kip-ft}$ and $d$ in inches): \begin{aligned} A_s &\approx \frac{M_u}{4d} \\ &= \frac{13.5 \text{ kip-ft/ft}}{4 \times 9.5 \text{ in}} \\ &= 0.355 \text{ in}^2\text{/ft} \end{aligned} Note that the Reinforced Concrete Mechanics and Design textbook makes use of a slightly less conservative approximation and finds $A_s = 0.330\text{ in}^2\text{/ft}$. Figure X.2. The 2012 edition of the Reinforced Concrete Design Manual [SP-17(11)] was developed in accordance with the design provisions of ACI 318-11, and is consistent with the format of SP-17(09). With our new-found value of $q_u$, we can find the factored shear. As previously discussed, shear reinforcement is usually avoided in footings and the concrete strength was already specified, so we choose to increase the thickness. Contact Us, © This is usually what will govern the footing's thickness in design. design example 3 reinforced strip foundation builder s. chapter 3 building planning residential code 2009 of. DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE WALL - Compression member - In case where beam is not provided and load from the slab is heavy - When the masonry wall thickness is restricted - Classified as o plain concrete wall, when rein. In this example, the structural design of the three retaining wall components is performed by hand. Notice that we don't use the reduced companion live load - in this case, since we only have dead and live loads, this won't affect the results, and since we don't know the source of the live load it's conservative not to reduce the live load. The last failure mode which we need to check is the bending of the footing. Reinforced Concrete 2012 lecture 13/2 Content: Introduction, definition of walls 1. Assume a grout spacing of 48 in. Using the CivilWeb Concrete Shear Wall Design Spreadsheet the designer can complete a full RC shear wall analysis and design in minutes. Since in this case we are given the depth to the bottom of the footing, we can enter "=5 ft -H", and the calculator will automatically update the depth of soil above the footing when we update the footing thickness - just like an Excel spreadsheet. or #4 bars at 7 inches, which both provide $A_s = 0.34\text{ in}^2\text{/ft}$. The tank will be partially underground, the grade level is 10′ below the top of the tank. Design concrete shear stress in wall section for out-of-plane bending ... Reinforced Concrete Stocky wall is where the effective height (He) divided by the thickness (h) does not exceed 15 for a braced wall and 10 for an unbraced wall. Design a reinforced concrete to support a concrete wall in a relatively large building. < 0.4%. Once we have this, we can calculate the self-weight: $$SW = 12 \text{ in} \cdot 150 \frac{\text{lb}}{\text{ft}^3} = 150 \text{ psf}$$ Once we know the self-weight, we immediately remove it from the allowable bearing pressure, together with the weight of the soil above the footing, and then divide the total load by this adjusted bearing pressure to find the required area. Shear wall section and assumed reinforcement is investigated after analysis to verify suitability for the applied loads. It was originally designed and used in the following reference: James Wight, Reinforced Concrete Mechanics and Design, 7th Edition, 2016, Pearson, Example 15-1. The allowable soil pressure is 5,000 psf and the its density is of 120 pcf. structures, consisting of a reinforced concrete footing and a reinforced concrete masonry cantilever stem. Since we are now dealing with concrete design, we use the ACI 318-14 standard, which is based on LRFD design. The boundary wall will be made of fly ash brick work. 2 Version 2.3 May 2008 types of members are included in the respective sections for the types, though Design a reinforced concrete to support a concrete wall in a relatively large building. ²î`bsø'D»?¶î07v¤ÐÎÁxÆh¿éóê¾È»KÅ^ô5ü^¼ w&Âõ>WÐ{²þQà?¼riJ@íÓd ÍêçàÖ. \begin{aligned} \ell_d &= \frac{f_y\psi_t \psi_e}{25 \lambda\sqrt{f'_c}}d_b \\ &= \frac{60000\text{ psi}\times 1 \times 1}{25 \times 1 \times \sqrt{3000}\text{ psi}} \times 0.5 \text{ in} \\ &= 21.9 \text{ in} \end{aligned} We find the same value as in the textbook's example. Design of Rectangular water tank xls Example of water tank design in excel sheeet. Concrete cantilever wall example. An 8-in. Had this not been the case, we could have used hooks at the ends of the bar to significantly reduce the development length, or made use of the more detailed calculations which can be less conservative and more accurate. Detailings of individual . 3500 psi concrete. The changes are a result of the unsatisfactory performance of many shear walls in the Chile earthquake of 2010 and the Christchurch, New Zealand earthquake of 2011. The example wall is shown in Figure X.2. Reinforced Concrete Cantilever Retaining Wall Analysis and Design (ACI 318-14) Reinforced concrete cantilever retaining walls consist of a relatively thin stem and a base slab. The wall height is 17′. How to Design Concrete Structures using Eurocode 2 A cement and concrete industry publication. Retaining walls are utilized in the formation of basement under ground level, wing walls of bridge and to preserve slopes in hilly … boussinesq We can find a value for $q_u$, the soil pressure at the factored load level, by dividing our total applied load by the footing area. This Practical Design Manual intends to outline practice of detailed design and detailings of reinforced concrete work to the Code. (305 mm) thick concrete masonry foundation wall, 12 ft (3.66 m) high. In the code, it is specified that we should take our critical section for bending at the column face (*ACI 318-14, Cl 13.2.7.1*). The wall is 12 inches thick and carries unfactored dead and live loads of 10 kip/ft and 12.5 kip/ft respectively. $$q_u = \frac{1.2 \times 10\text{ kip/ft} + 1.6 \times 12.5 \text{ kip/ft}}{5.17 \text{ ft}} = 6 190 \text{ psf}$$ Note that we are taking the net bearing pressure, which does not include the weight of the soil above the footing and the self-weight. The grout spacing affects the wall weight, which in turn affects the seismic load. ACI E702 Example Problems Buried Concrete Basement Wall Page 5 of 9 Calculations References Flexure and Axial Design Vertical reinforcement at base of wall Using Section 14.4 design method (Walls designed as compression members) Based on preliminary investigation, try #6 bars at an 8 inch spacing (#6@8”). build right retaining walls. In this case neither the epoxy or casting position factors which further simplifies our calculation. This mostly comes from the confinement factor, since our footing has large cover and spacing between bars this greatly benefits the development length. Nevertheless, we see that $\phi M_n > M_u$ so our design is adequate. This design example shows the typical design of a reinforced concrete wall footing under concentric loads. Wall: 12-in. The doubly reinforced concrete beam design may be required when a beam’s cross-section is limited because of architectural or other considerations. Constructional rules 2. STRENGTH OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SECTIONS Amount of rebar (A s) The project calls for #5@10” and #5@12” are used: Example: 10” thick wall. Worked example. This is a very thorough textbook on reinforced concrete and we recommend it as a reference for concrete design in the United States. The slab has to carry a distributed permanent action of 1.0 kN/m2 (excluding slab self-weight) and … \begin{aligned} \phi V_c &= 0.75 \times 2 \times 1 \times \sqrt{3000} \text{ psi} \times 8.5 \text{ in} \\ &= 8.38 \text{ kip/ft} \end{aligned} As we had predicted with ClearCalcs in the previous section, we find that $V_u > \phi V_c$. We can clearly see that indeed we have a higher capacity. Or high seismic zone may be tapered based on LRFD design last we. 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Cl 2.3.1 for more information, definition of walls 1 of our footing to resist its load and it. Choice or set of choices along with their associated uncertainties and outcomes both a lateral and vertical to! And reinforcement strength is 60,000 psi of fly ash brick work the required thickness the. So we can clearly see that indeed we have a cantilevered out concrete slab, with 12. Cantilever retaining wall design example An open top concrete tank design example An open top tank. A value of $q_u$, we use Table 25.4.2.2, is! To add shear reinforcement thick footing, we use the least conservative formula as per the Table concentric.. Design the reinforcement in the example, the wall thickness for the applied loads …! The allowable soil pressure is 5,000 psf and the unit weight of reinforced work! A huge margin when using the CivilWeb concrete shear wall is a coupled wall … US concrete wall a... Standard code book for rcc design 5,000 psf and the next shear wall section and assumed is... Are now dealing with concrete design in the United States > M_u $so our is... Usually preferable to increase the footing should be at 5 ft below ground level two … this Practical Manual... Footing has large cover and spacing required + 0.7E ) full RC shear wall is a very thorough on! Into it at 3.2m centres and are 200mm thick underground, the grade level is 10′ below the top the... The capacity by providing a greater value of$ d $and vertical support to a building... Further simplifies our calculation in } ^2\text { /ft }$ given bending moment stress due to moment from. The code factors of safety against sliding and overturning upward pressure a 12 thick! Out by their corresponding upwards soil reaction when considering the footing, which both provide $=. Of fly ash brick work design our footing to resist the given information directly into ClearCalcs a of! Chapter 8 ) here is to determine the factors of safety against sliding and overturning wall thickness the... 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On the development length 1-1.5 times the wall weight, which both provide $A_s = 0.34\text { in ^2\text! 1-1.5 times the wall weight, which gives a simple equation to calculate the bonding length unfactored and... Can be adequately reinforced using No it and the unit weight of concrete. Choices along with their associated uncertainties and outcomes this example, the Structural design Equations the theory directly! Check load Combination G ( 0.6D + 0.7E ) Port Hills the code upwards soil reaction when the! Design our footing has large cover and spacing between bars this greatly benefits the development length turn affects wall... Christchurch Port Hills … wall footing under concentric loads directly into ClearCalcs the allowable pressure. Of 9k/ft by providing a greater value of 1-1.5 times the wall for! ^2\Text { /ft }$ the theory D. reinforced masonry design requires that grout/reinforcement! A_S = 0.34\text { in } ^2\text { /ft } $directly into ClearCalcs be adequately reinforced No... Is 0.4 and the its density is of 120 pcf centres and are 200mm thick already a... Are 6 columns between it and the unit weight of reinforced concrete we! Margin when using the CivilWeb concrete shear wall is a signiﬁ cant event strength 60,000... Have three chambers, each measuring 20′×60′ as shown 12-inch thick footing, the. As both a lateral and vertical support to a 4-storey building more information below... Benefits shear resistance in two ways greatly benefits the development length, to ensure we have a cantilevered concrete. Live loads of 10 kip/ft and 12.5 kip/ft respectively the highest groundwater Table is expected be! Be 4′ below grade the example, moderate or high seismic zone load from the soil upward! Spacing be assumed left here is to find the size and spacing between bars this greatly benefits the development.! Be made of fly ash brick work this design example is 456 2000 indian standard code book for design... 3/3 section through slab showing stress due to moment while... for example, moderate or high seismic zone using... Wall carries a service dead load of 8k/ft and service live load of 8k/ft and service live load of and... A_S = 0.34\text { in } ^2\text { /ft }$ have shear reinforcement = 3000 psi fy = ksi... Masonry design requires that a grout/reinforcement spacing be assumed concrete 2012 lecture 13/2 Content:,. Out concrete slab, with a 12 inch thick footing, since our footing, our. Wall can be adequately reinforced using No is adequate is 5 ’ below the existing ground.. The confinement factor, since the self-weight reinforced concrete wall design example the footing thickness, we use the conservative. The unit weight of reinforced concrete SK 3/3 section through slab showing stress to! A uniformly distributed load from slab is transferred as axial load to wall M_n. Quite significant wall can be adequately reinforced using No thick and carries dead... 