During its construction, the bridge collapsed twice, killing 89 people. Almost 12 years to the day after the tragic collapse, the Prince of Wales opened the … In 1916, when the great bridge was nearing completion, tragedy struck again. It was also decided that the structure would have a cantilever attached to piers on each side of the river by anchor arms of 500 feet each and linked together by a centre span initially projected at 1,600 feet. Disturbed by this report, Cooper asked for further details on how they became bent. On October 2, 1900, the Prime Minister of Canada, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, placed the cornerstone of the Québec Bridge. By then, the south anchor arm, the tower and two panels of the south cantilever arm were ready and six sections of anchor arm were in place. The bridge initially collapsed on August 29, 1907. A grave error was made in assuming the dead load for the calculations at too low a value … The new design was again for a bridge with a single long cantilever span, but a much more massive one. All rights reserved. Elsewhere, about a dozen men who survived the fall were trapped alive in the mangled debris on the foreshore, which at that time of day was relatively dry. From an investigation by the St. Lawrence Bridge Company, the company assigned to build the bridge, the collapse was due to a material failure in one of the four bearing castings that supported the central span. In June 1907, McLure told Cooper that errors of alignment in some of the lower chord splices on the bridge’s south anchor arm were corrected by jacking them into line. The Quebec Bridge (Canada) was built in 18 years. Hall fell into deep, icy-cold water where he spent a few anxious minutes before being picked up by a makeshift rescue boat. During this time, there were two accidents (1907, 1916). Hall’s traveller was located at the end of the south cantilever arm. In April 1911, the board of engineers awarded a contract to the St. Lawrence Bridge Company of Montreal. The bridge was finally completed in 1917 and the Prince of Wales (later Edward VIII) officially opened it 22 August 1919. An Engineer's Aspect: The Bridge Collapse of August 29, 1907. The collapse of the Quebec Bridge resulted from the failure of the lower chords in the anchor arm near the main pier. This bridge would need to be long and high in order to accommodate ocean ships bound for Montreal. No other part of the bridge was damaged. It was, and still is, the longest clear span cantilever bridge in the world, measuring 549 metres between its main pillars. Preliminary calculations weren't checked, and the bridge was too heavy to support itself. You will not receive a reply. I fell down in my box, stood up, fell down again, and I looked again. 21 Feb.2003 The choice seemed ideal because when it came to professional construction designers, Cooper had few equals on the continent. Eighty-six workers were present on the bridge at the time. As before, the design called for a cantilever-type bridge, but it differed from the previous one with the lower chords of the cantilever arms several times stronger. Dee Bridge (1847) An Engineer's Aspect: The Dee Railway Bridge Disaster of 1847. Remarkably, Cooper, who claimed he was not in good health, worked out of his New York City office and did not make visits to the site during the erection of the superstructure. à The Collapse of September 11, 1916 ... Holtz, Neal. Legion Magazine is published six times a year in English with a French insert. He had been standing on a platform known as a “traveller”. The anchorage arm and the north-south cantilever were built between 1913 and 1916. In August, McLure telegraphed New York because splices between some of the lower chords in the south anchor arm were bent. The bridge was rebuilt, and on September 11, 1916, the bridge collapsed again killing 13 men. Meanwhile, back at the construction site, at about the same time the decision-makers in Phoenixville were ending their meeting, the Quebec Bridge collapsed at 5:30 p.m. Editor’s note: The text on the plaque erected by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada states that 76 lives were lost during the 1907 bridge collapse, other official sources, including the Canadian Encyclopedia, state 75 workmen died in the disaster. Ottawa’s Heron Road Bridge also collapsed during construction, on 10 August 1966. Search for related information by keyword. Quebec, QB St. Charles Orphanage Fire Disaster, Dec 1927. So in 1908, the minister of railways and canals appointed a board of engineers that arranged for and supervised the design and erection of a new bridge. The bridge was finally completed in 1917. “Well,” he said, “I could feel it start to go down and it was going down fast you got tears in your eyes, and you could hardly realize anything beside you. Three engineers were appointed: H. E. Vautelet, a former engineer for the Canadian Pacific Railways, Maurice FitzMaurice from Britain, who worked on the construction of the Forth Bridge, and Ralph Modjeski from Chicago. The Royal Commission, which investigated the cause of the disaster, concluded that “the collapse of the Quebec Bridge resulted from the failure of the lower chords in the anchor arm near the main pier. Lajeunesse was thrown down on a girder, but managed to get to his feet. Delphis Lajeunesse was working on the anchor arm with his brother, Eugene, when the bridge went down. In this report I will emphasize on the first collapse. “I thought I would never come to the surface again. On September 20, 1917, the construction and installation of a new span were successfully completed connecting the two sides of the St. Lawrence River and the first locomotive crossed over the river to the south shore with two passenger cars carrying 400 passengers on October 17, 1917. “It is not serious. Québec, 11 September 1916 - The world’s largest cantilever suspension bridge collapsed with the loss of more than 25 lives yesterday. A new bridge was designed. A few seconds later, the other ends pulled off their supports and the whole span came loose and disappeared into the river. The investigation by the board of engineers determined that the span did not buckle as Larocque and others claimed. Work was resumed, but on 11 September 1916 a new centre span being hoisted into position fell into the river, killing 13 men. Besides being a transportation link for trains, the bridge would serve as a crossing point for vehicles and pedestrians. The failure of these chords was due to their defective design.” My partner was just about seven or eight feet from me, and I never noticed him and never saw him–never knew anything.”. Contrary to popular belief the first rings were not made from iron from the collapsed bridge. As part of its commitment to the bridge project, the government guaranteed a bond issue to help pay for the work. For enquiries, contact us. From the War of 1812 to modern armed forces missions around the world, Legion Magazine offers a blend of stories, photographs, graphics, maps and posters on Canadian military history and heritage, veterans’ issues and the Canadian Armed Forces. I came to this side of the bridge and I looked, and when I saw the bridge go down in that way I was on that chord, and I thought that chord made the bridge fall.”. ... Quebecbridgepres group 13 ppt the collapse of quebec bridge a mistake made twice brief case study mechanical knowledge quora collapse of the quebec bridge 1907 collapse of the quebec bridge 1907. It was Canada’s worst bridge disaster. The bridge finally was completed and opened for traffic in August of 1918. A … Fortunately no lives were lost at this time. Home » Canada Corner » O Canada » A Bridge With Two Tragedies. The central span also collapsed while being put in place in 1916. But despite these and other irregularities, the Phoenix Bridge Company did not halt construction. Indeed, all that remained was the job of hoisting the mammoth centre span that would be connected to the cantilever arms. bridge at Quebec City. Three engineers were appointed: H. E. Vautelet, a former engineer for the Canadian Pacific Railways, Maurice FitzMaurice from Britain, who worked on the construction of the Forth Bridge, and Ralph Modjeskifrom Chicago. Except for the piers, nothing from the previous structure was recoverable. Pre-Centennial Period Date Disaster Type Location Region Notes Ref(s) 1917 December 6: Halifax Explosion: Wartime explosion Halifax, Nova Scotia Maritimes World War I The thunderous roar of the collapse was heard ten km (six miles) away in Quebec (p.80, Middleton, 2001). But the collapse of the bridge led to the tradition of the Iron Ring to symbolize the humility and fallibility of engineers. 11 September 1916 Quebec Bridge Collapse After a Royal Commission of Inquiry into the collapse, construction started on a second bridge. “There was a noise like the snapping of steel. In just one week, chord 9-L went out of line from three quarters of an inch to two and one quarter inches. He recalled the events: “I was on top just putting a turn on the rope to send up a box of bolts when I saw something jerk the bridge. The bridge collapsed during construction on August 29, 1907, killing 75 workers. There are three postcards, both black-and-white and color, of the Quebec Bridge. December 15, 1967. Three engineers were appointed: H. E. Vautelet, a former engineer for the Canadian Pacific Railways, Maurice FitzMaurice from Britain, who worked on the construction of the Forth Bridge, and Ralph … They have lost when victory seemed certain.”, Bridge worker Enoch McCann, who could not swim, was picked out of the chilly water by a rescue boat. The southwest corner of the span tore away and sagged. The rail bridge was designed to link the two shores and provide easier transit for the 11 railroad companies in particular between the railways in Québec and the United States. After a Royal Commission of Inquiry into the collapse [of the Quebec Bridge in August 1907 ], construction started on a second bridge. When the Quebec Bridge collapsed in September 1916, a horrific sense of déjà vu was felt throughout the city. He also modified specifications that would allow for higher The design included two tracks for trains and one lane of roadway. Submitted by gendisasters. The failure of these chords was due to their defective design. Then, on September 11 th, 1916, the time came to raise the central span that had been constructed in Sillery Cove, which was intended to join the two cantilever arms and finish the building of the bridge. Bridging The St Lawrence Wonders Of World Ering. It was as if they had lost a great friend. In February 1906, Cooper became concerned when he examined the detailed drawings of the Phoenix Bridge Company and found that the actual weight of the manufactured steel parts far exceeded the weight estimated by Szlapka prior to manufacturing. He endorsed the Phoenix design as the “best and the cheapest” of those submitted, although he decided to lengthen the centre span from 1,600 to 1,800 feet. The ill-starred bridge suffered a second disaster on 11 September 1916 when a new centre span being hoisted into position fell into the river, killing 13 men. It collapsed two times in this duration once in 1907 killing 75 workers and second time in 1916 killing 13 workers. On September 11, 1916, the central span built in a cove at the bottom of Mount Hermon Cemetery fell into the river as it was being hoisted. In the space of just 15 seconds, the south anchor arm, the cantilever arm and the partially completed suspended span fell some 150 feet into the St. Lawrence River. On January 24, 1996, the Government of Canada designated the Québec Bridge a National Historic Site, recognizing it as the most important bridge in the history of Canadian civil engineering. During the federal inquiry into the disaster, Hall was asked whether he knew something was wrong with the bridge just by the feel and not by the sight of it. The commission found that “a grave error was made in assuming the dead load for the calculations at too low a value and not afterwards revising this assumption. The span was carried on scows that were guided by tugs. For years, the bridge has been viewed as an engineering marvel, but few people know the full story behind its construction and the two disasters that claimed the lives of 89 workers. Today, the bridge continues to allow passengers and goods to move freely between the two shores and the rest of North America. The Prince of Wales officially inaugurated the Québec Bridge on August 29, 1919. How they got there I don’t know, but they saved my life.”, Eyewitness Arsene Larocque, who helped transport the span to the bridge site, described the moment of the accident with some detail. The 5,100-ton span had been built and was sitting in Sillery Cove, approximately 3 1/2 miles from the bridge site. 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